### Calculation terminology and mathematical operators

The term 'calculation' in CalcPad refers to a formula as entered in the Pad ComboBox control. The mathematical operators are the same as in Excel formulae but the order of operation has a notable exception (see the foot of this page).

A mathematical operator is the symbol or sign that represents an arithmetic operation in CalcPad calculations.

• Subtraction - minus sign (-)
• Addition - plus sign ( + )
• Division - forward slash ( / )
• Multiplication - asterisk ( * )
• Exponentiation - caret ( ^ )

If more than one operator is used in a calculation, there is a specific order that CalcPad will follow to perform these mathematical operations. This order of operations can be changed by adding brackets to the calculation.

The Order of Operations is:

• Brackets
• Exponents
• Division and Multiplication
• Addition and Subtraction

How the Order of Operations Works:

Any operation(s) contained in brackets will be carried out first followed by any exponents. After that, CalcPad considers division or multiplication operations to be of equal importance, and carries out these operations in the order they occur left to right in the equation. The same goes for the next two operations – addition and subtraction; they are considered equal in the order of operations. Whichever one appears first in an equation, either addition or subtraction, is the operation carried out first.

A minus sign is also placed before a number or arithmetic expression to denote it as negative.

It is important to note that in CalcPad, in common with the practice used by Google and others, but unlike in Excel, exponentiation has priority over the minus sign so:
-3^2
Result -9

If you want to exponentiate the signed number use brackets as following:
(-3)^2
Result 9